Entitlement to ICT in Secondary art and design.
Entitlement to ICT in secondary art and design

Becta | ict advice | entitlement document

Entitlement to ICT in secondary art and design

Computers are general purpose creation, storage and distribution systems. They have become part of our contemporary culture coexisting alongside television, radio, video and computer games. In addition the Internet and e-mail provide resources and communication opportunities for schools to use and develop. Communication in our culture and society is becoming increasingly visual. Our role therefore is not simply to facilitate the development of skills in art but to provide a context for assisting pupils to construct meaning from this array of visual information. In other words teachers and parents share a responsibility to teach the next generation how to use ICT purposefully in their learning.

Using computers is fun, but ICT is also a challenge to understand the wide range of applications available. ICT is therefore essential that we teach children basic skills in using and managing the computer environ-ment and creatively explore the range of computer software tools in order to gain an understanding of its strengths in much the same way as we teach using traditional tools and media. This will enable them to choose the most appropriate tools in the future.

A pupil's entitlement to ICT in secondary art and design

Using Information Communication Technology in art and design is a new area of experience for both pupils and teachers. ICT provides children with access to a wide range of processes and tools that until recently were only available to professionals working in the design and film industries.

In art education the use of computers, scanners, digital cameras, printers and the Internet is challenging us to rethink the ways in which we develop pupil's creativity. ICT blurs the boundary between traditional art forms providing opportunities to express ideas in many different ways. In teaching art and design we need to consider how ICT might be used alongside and or integrated with art practice and how to develop this new medium in a way that develops and extends visual understanding.

Many artists are using ICT to develop and create their work. Therefore to have the broadest experience pu-pils must also have access to ICT in relation to their artwork.

Why define a pupil ICT entitlement in secondary art and design?

The speed of technological change has and continues to be fast. In some schools pupils are using digital video, creating animations and working with digital images in different ways, in others there is little or no ac-cess to some of the exciting opportunities that digital media provides.

The development of ICT in Art Departments over the past few years has been patchy. Given the pace of change in ICT ICT is essential that we begin to recognize the place of ICT within the art curriculum KS3/4 along with the opportunities that are now available to pursue vocational courses in this field.

ICT has become part of contemporary culture pupils at Key Stage 3 and 4 have an entitlement to access and develop ICT capability in Art.

The statutory requirements of the National Curriculum for Art and Design (2000) includes the following statements:
  1. Pupils should be given opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capability through the use of ICT tools to support their learning in all subjects.
  2. Pupils should be given opportunities to support their work by being taught to:
    1. find things out from a variety of sources, selecting and synthesising the information to meet their needs and developing an ability to question its accuracy, bias and plausibility
    2. develop their ideas using ICT tools to amend and refine their work and enhance its quality and accuracy
    3. exchange and share information, both directly and through electronic media
    4. review, modify and evaluate their work, reflecting critically on its quality, as ICT progresses

Key Stage 3
In developing art and design skills, pupils should be taught:
  • to gain access to a wide range of art knowledge and information sources and to explore ideas for dif-ferent purposes and audiences (for example using the internet to search for primary and secondary sources of Information)
  • to experience alternative ways of working, investigating and combining imagery (for example using a range of art software to develop ideas linked to work in two and three dimensions and to explore time based media)
  • to communicate in different ways and to receive critical feedback on their ideas (for example sharing images by e-mail or a website)
  • to consider the wider impact of digital/new media on art and visual culture

Given the changes in the curriculum and the increase in opportunities made available by the National Grid for Learning, it is important that teachers identify how ICT can be integrated effectively to ensure that all pu-pils' benefit from the enhancements ICT can offer.

How can ICT help pupil's learning in Secondary Art?

Pupils studying art are entitled to use ICT to gain access to a wide range of knowledge and informa-tion sources
When undertaking the following activities in art:
  • collecting, secondary sources of information on artists and designers past and present and from dif-ferent cultures
  • undertaking a broad enquiry approach to a topic
  • collecting primary sources of information on the use of new media in art and design

ICT can contribute by providing access to:
  • a wide range of galleries and information on art movements including contemporary sources (e.g. Internet / CD-ROM including school art galleries)
  • a wide range of supplementary visual information on art techniques and art issues (e.g. selecting im-ages of skeletal forms for a unit of work on structures)
  • a wide range of contemporary art practice including the use of new media ( e.g. animation, film, inter-active websites, on line projects etc.)

Pupils studying art & design are entitled to use ICT to gain access to a new tool/medium that can be used to develop creative ideas
When undertaking the following activities in art:
  • developing initial ideas for project work
  • refining /combining and modifying ideas
  • creating a finished piece of work

ICT can contribute by providing access to:
  • a wide range of secondary source material and information that can be stored as an electronic sketchbook (e.g. information can be printed or used electronically and organised for different pur-poses)
  • a wide range of software tools used to design, edit and manipulate both still and moving images and sound (e.g. images from a digital camera or scanner can be combined to create new and exciting im-ages - images can be printed and developed using traditional media)
  • a range of tools for presenting ideas in electronic or print form (e.g. creating an animated sequences, presentations, movies with sound, or an interactive web pages)

Pupils studying art are entitled to use ICT to communicate in different ways and to receive critical feedback on their ideas.
When undertaking the following activities in art:
  • sharing images and information on art issues by e-mail
  • presenting work on a website
  • evaluating and receiving critical comment

ICT can contribute by providing access to:
  • on-line collaborative projects and pupils work (e.g. e-mail share images with other students and give feedback. E-mail artists and galleries for information on exhibitions and processes.)
  • school art galleries (e.g. view other pupils work nationally and inter nationally)
  • the different stages in the development of an image or idea (e.g. evaluate/review work tracking the process and receiving critical comment on progress.)

Pupils studying art are entitled to use ICT to consider the wider impact of digital/new media on art and visual culture.
When undertaking the following activities in art:
  • studying specific examples (e.g. the use of digital photography as a tool for artists and designers)
  • developing pupil knowledge and awareness of the use of electronic media in contemporary art prac-tice use and applications in work and society.

Planning for Entitlement

  • Each of the four entitlement statements (or broad objectives) is applicable to teaching and learning with pupils of any age (5-19 and beyond). Use them as a curriculum-planning checklist, asking 'Has the department applied all four entitlement opportunities at some point in the Key Stage?'
  • Complete coverage of all pupil entitlement opportunities may not be achievable immediately; schools, teachers and pupils will start from different levels of confidence and expertise. So, do set out goals to be reached over the next few years.
Pupil entitlement will need redefining as ICT applications develop in society at large. Use the ideas here to stimulate debate about the future development of art and ICT.

Skill Development
Art software not only imitates traditional processes but many pieces of software offer functionality unrelated to traditional working methods.
In developing art skills, pupils should be taught how to use range of ICT software to explore processes such as designing, editing, researching, presenting and to use a range of peripheral devices such as scanners, digital still and video cameras, sketchpads (or drawing tablets) to collect digital data for use in a variety of art contexts.

Key Stage 3 and 4 Art - an ICT practical checklist

The practical checklist is designed to complement the programme of study for Art & Design (National Cur-riculum 2000) and provides examples of ICT activities that ICT would be desirable to include for pupils at KS3 and KS4. (Specific art examples are given.) There may be opportunities to include activities which do not feature here or to develop some techniques to a greater degree of sophistication. Use the checklist alongside the entitlement statements to ensure that your planning for a Key Stage targets a basic entitlement for ICT use through art and design.

Key Stage 3

xploring and developing ideas
For ICT this might include:
Research use the World Wide Web to collect secondary sources and information to support pro-ject's and investigate art, craft and design in the locality, in a variety of genres, styles and traditions, and from a range of historical, social and cultural contexts
Develop an electronic sketchbook - use a scanner or digital camera to collect resources to re-cord their observations and ideas
Present create a multimedia presentation that includes text image and sound to describe how an idea has developed or to demonstrate how information can be re-purposed for dif-ferent audiences. Presenting ideas on the 'world wide web' allows pupils to show their work in a global forum.
Investigating and making art, craft and design
For ICT this might include:
Painting, drawing markmaking using a range of computer tools and paint effects exploring the elements of art
Collage use image manipulation software to create electronic collages
Digital Photography explore photographic processes digitally
Textiles use repeat pattern options to create designs for textiles
Graphics/Illustration to explore text, layout and graphic imagery
Film explore and edit moving images from a digital video camera
Animation create animations using drawn images or digital photographs
3D use three-dimensional modelling software to design and create animated characters and or sculptural forms
Evaluating and developing work
For ICT this might include
Review stages ICT allows pupils to save their work at different stages, which is not so readily done with other media. This allows pupils to review the stages they have been through in achieving the product as well as making ICT possible for them to track back to an ear-lier stage of the process and proceed in a different direction
Communication share images and ideas with others via e-mail on art issues
nowledge and understanding
For ICT this might include
Impact of ICT Developing an understanding of the impact of ICT on the work of contemporary artists and designers
ICT as art digital media is being used as a medium by some artists to create their art and the differences in the roles and functions of artists in the age of digital culture.

Actions for you

  • Read the ICT Practical Checklist, using the examples to help you appreciate the possibilities.
  • Can you draw on the different types of activity to be more specific about the ways of delivering enti-tlement opportunities?
  • Can you cover all four areas within Key Stages 3 and 4 immediately, or will you aim to move towards this target in one or two years' time?
  • Use the checklist to help you plan for appropriate resource needs.

Moving towards pupil entitlement in art
Each of these case studies highlights the situation for an art department in a different school and the way in which the department is moving towards implementing pupil entitlement for art and ICT.
Questions you could ask your self as you read these are:
  • Which of the case study schools best fits your situation?
  • Can you use these experiences to help you plan a strategy for art and ICT in your school?
  • How does your department contribute to ICT capability?
  • Is there an ICT co-ordinator with whom you can discuss what to do next?

Case Study 1 - Art ICT entitlement KS3

This is a large comprehensive school. One computer is always available in each art room. There are two members of staff with ICT expertise, and two who need support. The department makes use of one of the schools computer suites for whole groups to use the Internet for research. The department follows a modi-fied version of the QCA scheme of work.

ICT Use in Art KS3
In year 7, pupils:
  • scan drawings and photographs to develop ideas on self image linked to QCA unit 7A Self-image (Year 7) they work in turn on the art room computers to manipulate their images and make printouts that are developed into paintings.
  • use the internet to collect secondary source material for a project on the work of Gaudi
In year 8, pupils:
  • use the internet to reseach for information on contemporary sculptors for QCA Unit 8C (Year 8) Shared View. After developing their sculptures using traditional materials they locate them in the envi-ronment using digital photography and image manipulation software
In year 9, pupils:
  • use a scanner to record drawings and photographs for unit Unit 9A Life Events (Year 9) Pupils de-velop a digital collage using image manipulation software

The Head of Art's view is: : that ICT entitlement is being progressively built up throughout KS3 providing a good base for individual work at KS4. However, the department feel that their progress is limited as there is no software for image manipulation on the school network, therefore ICT can only uses networked resources for Internet work.

The next step will be to develop a clearer policy for integrating art based ICT within whole school objectives so that they can get the necessary resources to develop whole class teaching in the network rooms

Case Study 2 - Art ICT entitlement KS3

This is a small comprehensive school. There are two networked rooms of computers. Art has limited blocks of time allocated per year for KS3. The Art department consists of two full-time and one part-time teacher. Only one is confident with computers, the others need in-class support from the school ICT co-ordinator. At KS3, all students are encouraged to use the Library resource centre to access on line art resources. The web addresses are supplied by the art department and relate to each unit of work. ICT is used within one art unit per year to make use of the allocated computer network time

ICT Use in Art at KS3
In year 7, pupils:
  • scan sketchbook work to develop their ideas on letterforms they use printouts of the manipulated letter forms as a starting point for a piece of abstract ceramic sculpture
In year 8, pupils:
  • use a digital camera to take photographs of themselves for a unit of work on Cubism. They layer their portrait images and make printouts that are developed in to paintings
In year 9, pupils:
  • as an extension activity, use digital camera images and drawings to develop a simple 10 frame ani-mation based on the work of the Futurists

The Head of Art's view is: that the access to the computer network has helped the department to build up confidence in working with large numbers of pupils.. The department is planning the ICT input as a team and are getting better at identifying purposeful activities linked to their units of work. The ICT co-ordinator's input is highly valued. However, the current weakness is that pupils receive all ICT opportunities within one major piece of work each year. The next step is to develop an ICT resource by converting an old cloakroom near the art department, this will enable individuals at KS3 & KS4 to use ICT outside of the set projects as their work and ideas dictate.

Planning pupil ICT entitlement in secondary art

Having read this information, what can you do next to move towards implementing a pupil entitlement for ART and ICT?
  1. Review What do you do already?
    Refer to the four entitlement statements to review your current practice.
    Can you do more?
    Consider staff confidence and expertise, access to computers, availability of software, school ICT pol-icy, good teaching ideas
  2. Plan
    What are the opportunities at course level?
    Use the entitlement statements and the practical checklist to highlight opportunities in each Key Stage course. Plan departmental objectives for art and ICT
    How could ICT be included in schemes of work?
    Use the ICT practical checklist to help plan ICT applications in schemes of work
  3. Identity
    What else is needed to accomplish this?
    Outline the professional development needs of the department. Look at whole school ICT policy and as-sessment needs. Consider the hardware and software requirements.
    Who can help?
    ICT co-ordinator, senior management team, other heads of department, LEA Advisors (ICT/Art ICT cen-tre, the Art Associations and Becta
  4. Action
    Create an Art/ICT action plan With:
    1. clear objectives over a realistic timescale (1 or 2 years)
    2. recognition of the whole school situation
    3. reference to Key Stage and year group course plans
    4. reference to specific schemes of work
    5. identification of resource and inset provision
    6. reference to ways of monitoring progress and checking achievement (departmental and pupil)
  5. Don't forget to evaluate success ICT should be helping pupils in Art to:
    1. research and develop ideas more confidently
    2. choose appropriate ICT to develop and present ideas
    3. use a wider range of information sources
    4. recognise the importance of new media on contemporary art practice and visual culture